Rape growing

From the title of the farmis seen that one of the priority crops for cultivation is rape. With the general availability of arable land of 3069 hectares, on 480 hectares rape is located (430 hectares occupies winter-annual and 50 hectares of spring-planted). Such a significant proportion of the crop pattern is caused primarily by the presence on the farm production capacities for processing oilseed rape. Secondly, JSC "Rape" is interested in producing high quality seeds of high reproductivity with their furthure realization by farms in the region, which ultimately leads to an increase in volume of procurement of raw materials for processing. In turn, the livestock industry completely removed the problem of balancing the diet for protein. In crop sector, in conditions of high saturation rotation crops, rape cultivation can largely solve the problem of its predecessor.

Winter rape cultivation is profitable, as its productivity is higher than that of the spring one, under favorable conditions, cultivation of winter rape is one of the most competitive against the weeds. Besides in autumn there are no such harmful weeds like pigweed white. Although there are overwintering weeds such as Jimhill-weed but rape overgrows her, and the rest he just supresses. Well, if the problem is the sow thistle and chamomile, it can be dealt with herbicide. However, what concerns weed control, to obtain high yields one can not do without herbicides.

The farm is cultivating two varieties of winter rape - Progress and Zorny, testicle class Dabradzey was laid. Seeds for propagation are purchased in RUE NPTSNANRB, Zhodino, from nursery propagation, thus, the other farmsget the super seed. It should be noted that in finalizing the seeds such a method is used as the calibration using aerodynamic separator type "Class".

In the crop rotationwinter rape is located mainly after perennial grasses (glifosatcontaining drugsprocessingis required), and after spring wheat. Soil treatment after perennial grasses is carried by Simba SL500 unit to a depth of 8 cm. After 8-10 days - plowing byturnwrest plough to prevent moisture loss appropriate to the processing unit CABG on the diagonal to the direction of tillage. After harvesting the spring wheat with the simultaneous grinding of straw introduced CAS at the rate of 20-40 kg DV / ha. For loosening subsoil horizon aggregate Simba SL500 is used to a depth of 28-32 cm

Chemical fertilizers are a major factor in yield formation of cruciferous crops. To obtain 1 ton of rapseed 50 ... 60 kg of nitrogen, 25 ... 35 kg of phosphorus is used, which is 2 times more than crops, as well as 3-5 times more potassium (40 ... 60 kg ), calcium, magnesium, boron and sulfur. Calculation of doses of mineral fertilizers is carried out by the balance method, approximate doses of battery: N - 180 - 200 kg DV / ha; P - 70 - 90 kg DV / ha; K - 130-160 kg in the village. / ha. It is advisable to use organic fertilizers.

It is not easy to sow winter rape right, because the depth of setting the seeds is no more than 1,5-2 cm, so the surface of the field must be perfectly aligned. Sowing is carried out in the first half of August with the seeding rate 80-100 seeds per square meter (up to 5 kg) to a depth of 1,5 cm by seeders Amazone AD-300 (seeds Zorn and Progress are used), with the obligatory treatment. Because during the growing seasonvarious units have to pass on the fields the technology gauge should be madefor crop protection and evenspread of fertilizers, their savings, and minimization of damage from passing through the stems.

In spring after crop condition assessment after overwintering the introduction of nitrogen fertilizing is planned. The state of crops and weather conditions considered. The first dressing is carried out with CAS 75-90 kg DV / ha in re-vegetation. The second nitrogen top dressing - a phase of shooting 40-60 kg urea DV / ha. At deficiency in soil sulfur are making ammonium sulfate, 100 kg / ha in physical weight.

The third nitrogen fertilization is carried out in the early flowering of ammonium nitrate - 80 -120 kg / ha of physical weight to improve the quality of seeds.

Spring chemical weedingis carried outif grass weeds are present. At the beginning of budding chemical treatment with insecticides, micronutrients and growth regulators is carried out. After 8 - 10 days (late bud, f 59) - the second chemical treatment with insecticides and micronutrients.

Of the diseases most dangerous for rape are Alternaria, white rot, black leg, downy mildew, superficial necrosis and mildew. Less common are white rust, gray mold, tsilindrosporoz, white spotting, fusariose wilting and others. The only effective solution to fight against these diseases is the use of proven drugs in the flowering period. The best results are achieved when applied in the period from the early to mid flowering.

Such a highly effective fungicide is"Pictor". This two-part systemic fungicide of third generation against such pathogens as alternariya and Sclerotinia. This drug has preventive and therapeutic effect against these diseases, but also has physiological effects caused by the strobilurin. Even in the absence of disease increase in crop yieldsis observed due to the aforesaid physiological effects. The dose is - 0,5 l / ha.

Crops are processed with adhesive NyuFilm-17 - 0,7 l / ha.

Harvesting - one of the most important elements in technology of rape cultivation. Those cultures are mowed directly, although separate method of harvesting is possible. Practice has shown that direct combining is the most effective method of harvesting, to reduce the loss of seeds for 25 ... 30% in comparison with separate cleaning. In recent years, virtually the entire area of applied drug NyuFilm-17, two weeks before harvest at a dose of 0.7 l / ha. This helps to avoid premature cracking of pods and smooth uneven ripening. Rape harvesting should be carried out on a high cut, at 2 ... 5 cm below the level of the lower tier of pods. This not only reduces losses, but also significantly reduces seed moisture and amount of impurities in a pile. To reduce losses in the cutting area a high operating speed of the harvestershould be maintained (4 ... 6 km / h), use a special rape harvester with an extended platform of cutting apparatus and the side with a knife. Reports from a pile of seed harvester when necessary bookmark deposited immediately clear in the flow of cleaning. Moisture in the seeds should not exceed 8 ... 9%. Even a brief warming of piles leads to a dramatic reduction in crop and technology (product) quality of seeds.


Kinds of activity

Rape growing

More than 480 hectares of arable land in the ecologically clean areas of Belarus set aside for rape growing

Production of rapeseed oil

Rapeseed oil - an essential component in the production of fuel XXI - biofuels

Cattle breeding

A herd numbering more than 2700 fnimals including 1030 milking cows